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Die hohen Investitionskosten für Unternehmen zur Entwicklung von Individualsoftware implizieren eine sehr lange Nutzungszeit. Das bedeutet aber auch das die Notwendigkeit gegeben sein muss, das die Anwendung stetig neuen Anforderungen angepasst werden kann. Ein klassisches Beispiel hierfür sind Onlineshops, die permanent die vom Gesetzgeber beschlossenen Forderungen innerhalb einer festgesetzten Frist umsetzen müssen. Die meisten Aufwendungen im Budget eines Softwareprojekts entfallen auf den Punkt Wartung. Dabei wird der geringste Teil der Kosten für Korrekturen verwendet. In diesem Kurs lernen Sie wie Sie ihre Software Projekte zukunftssicher gestalten können um auf künftige Änderungen vorbereitet zu sein.
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For more than a decade, it has been widely accepted that computer systems should be kept up to date. Those who regularly install updates reduce the risk of having security gaps on their computer that could be misused. Always in the hope that manufacturers of software always fix in their updates also security flaws. Microsoft, for example, has imposed an update requirement on its users since the introduction of Windows 10. Basically, the idea was well-founded. Because unpatched operating systems allow hackers easy access. So the thought: ‘Latest is greatest’ prevailed a very long time ago.
Windows users had little leeway here. But even on mobile devices like smartphones and tablets, automatic updates are activated in the factory settings. If you host an open source project on GitHub, you will receive regular emails about new versions for the libraries used. So at first glance, this is a good thing. However, if you delve a bit deeper into the topic, you will quickly come to the conclusion that latest is not always the best.
The best-known example of this is Windows 10 and the update cycles enforced by Microsoft. It is undisputed that systems must be regularly checked for security problems and available updates must be installed. That the maintenance of computer systems also takes time is also understandable. However, it is problematic when updates installed by the manufacturer paralyze the entire system and a new installation becomes necessary because the update was not sufficiently tested. But also in the context of security updates unasked function changes to the user to bring in I consider unreasonable. Especially with Windows, there are a lot of additional programs installed, which can quickly become a security risk due to lack of further development. That means with all consequence forced Windows updates do not make a computer safe, since here the additionally installed software is not examined for weak points.
If we take a look at Android systems, the situation is much better. However, there are enough points of criticism here as well. The applications are updated regularly, so the security is actually improved significantly. But also with Android, every update usually means functional changes. A simple example is the very popular Google StreetMaps service. With every update, the map usage becomes more confusing for me, as a lot of unwanted additional information is displayed, which considerably reduces the already limited screen.
As a user, it has fortunately not yet happened to me that application updates on Android have paralyzed the entire phone. Which also proves that it is quite possible to test updates extensively before rolling them out to users. However, this does not mean that every update was unproblematic. Problems that can be observed here regularly are things like an excessively increased battery consumption.
Pure Android system updates, on the other hand, regularly cause the hardware to become so slow after almost two years that you often decide to buy a new smartphone. Although the old phone is still in good condition and could be used much longer. I have noticed that many experienced users turn off their Android updates after about a year, before the phone is sent into obsolescence by the manufacturer.
How do you get an update muffler to keep his systems up to date and secure? My approach as a developer and configuration manager is quite simple. I distinguish between feature update and security patch. If you follow the semantic versioning in the release process and use a branch by release model for SCM systems like Git, such a distinction can be easily implemented.
But I also dedicated myself to the question of a versionable configuration setting for software applications. For this, there is a reference implementation in the project TP-CORE on GitHub, which is described in detail in the two-part article Treasue Chest. After all, it must be clear to us that if we reset the entire configuration made by the user to factory settings during an update, as is quite often the case with Windows 10, quite unique security vulnerabilities can arise.
This also brings us to the point of programming and how GitHub motivates developers through emails to include new versions of the libraries used in their applications. Because if such an update is a major API change, the problem is the high migration effort for the developers. This is where an also fairly simple strategy has worked for me. Instead of being impressed by the notifications about updates from GitHub, I regularly check via OWASP whether my libraries contain known risks. Because if a problem is detected by OWASP, it doesn’t matter how costly an update can be. The update and the associated migration must be implemented promptly. This also applies to all releases that are still in production
However, one rule of thumb applies to avoid update hell from the start: Only install or use what you really need. The fewer programs are installed under Windows and the fewer apps there are on the smartphone, the fewer security risks there are. This also applies to program libraries. Less is more from a security perspective. Apart from that, we get a free performance measurement by dispensing with unnecessary programs.
Certainly, for many private users the question of system updates is hardly relevant. Only new unwanted functions in existing programs, performance degradations or now and then shot operating systems cause more or less strong displeasure. In the commercial surrounding field quite fast substantial costs can develop, which can affect also the straight implementing projects negatively. Companies and people who develop software can improve user satisfaction considerably if they differentiate between security patches and feature updates in their release publications. And a feature update should then also contain all known security updates.
During my work as a Configuration Manager / DevOps for large web projects, I have watched companies disregard Conway’s Law and fail miserably. Such failure then often manifested itself in significant budget overruns and missed deadlines.
The internal infrastructure in the project collaboration was exactly modeled on the internal organizational structures and all experiences and established standards were ‘bent’ to fit the internal organization. This resulted in problems that made the CI/CD pipelines particularly cumbersome and resulted in long execution times. But also adjustments could only be made with a lot of effort. Instead of simplifying existing processes and aligning them with established standards, excuses were made to leave everything as it was before. Let’s take a look at what Conway’s Law is and why it should be observed.
The US American researcher and programmer Melvin E. Conway received his doctorate from Case Western Reserve University in 1961. His area of expertise is programming languages and compiler design.
In 1967, he submitted to The Harvard Business Review his paper “How Do Committees Invent?” (Engl.: How Do Committees Invent?) and was rejected. The reason given was that his thesis was not substantiated. However, Datamation, the largest IT magazine at the time, accepted his article and published it in April 1968. And this paper has since been widely cited. The core statement is:
Any organization that designs a system (defined broadly) will produce a design whose structure is a copy of the organization’s communication structure.
Conway, Melvin E. “How do Committees Invent?” 1968, Datamation, vol. 14, num. 4, pp. 28–31
When Fred Brooks cited the essay in his legendary 1975 book, The Mythical Man-Month, he called this key statement Conway’s Law. Brooks recognized the connection between Conway’s Law and management theory. In this regard, we find the following example in the article:
Because the design which occurs first is almost never the best possible, the prevailing system concept may need to change. Therefore, flexibility of organization is important to effective design.
An often-cited example of an “ideal” team size in terms of Conway’s Law is Amazon’s two-pizza rule, which states that individual project teams should have no more members than two pizzas can fill in one meeting. The most important factor to consider in team alignment, however, is the ability to work across teams and not live in silos.
Conway’s Law was not intended as a joke or Zen koan, but is a valid sociological observation. Take a look at structures from government agencies and their digital implementation. But also processes found in large corporations have been emulated by software systems. Such applications are considered very cumbersome and complicated, so that they find little acceptance among users and they prefer to fall back on alternatives. Unfortunately, it is often impossible to simplify processes in large organizational structures for politically motivated reasons.
Among other things, there is a detailed article by Martin Fowler, who deals explicitly with software architectures and elaborates the importance of the coupling of objects and modules.The communication of the developers among themselves plays a substantial role, in order to obtain best possible results. This circumstance over the importance of communication was taken up also by the agile software development and converted as essential point.Especially when distributed teams work on a joint project, the time difference is a limiting factor in team communication.This must then be designed particularly efficiently.
In 2010, Jonny Leroy and Matt Simons coined the term Inverse Conway Maneuver in the article “Dealing with creaky legacy platforms”:
Conway’s Law … can be summarized as “Dysfunctional organizations tend to create dysfunctional applications.” To paraphrase Einstein, you can’t fix a problem from within the same mindset that created it, so it is often worth investigating whether restructuring your organization or team would prevent the new application from displaying all the same structural dysfunctions as the original. In what could be termed an “inverse Conway maneuver,” you may want to begin by breaking down silos that constrain the team’s ability to collaborate effectively.
Since the 2010s, a new architectural style has entered the software industry. The so-called microservices, which are created by small agile teams. The most important criterion of a microservice compared to a modular monolith is that a microservice can be seen as an independently viable module or subsystem. On the one hand, this allows the microservice to be reused in other applications. On the other hand, there is a strong encapsulation of the functional domain, which opens up a very high flexibility for adaptations.
However, Conway’s law can be applied to many other areas and is not exclusively limited to the software industry. This is what makes the work so valuable.
By experience, most of us know how difficult it is to express what we mean talking about quality. Why is that so? There exist many different views on quality and every one of them has its importance. What has to be defined for our project is something that fits its needs and works with the budget. Trying to reach perfectionism can be counterproductive if a project is to be terminated successfully. We will start based on a research paper written by B. W. Boehm in 1976 called “Quantitative evaluation of software quality.” Boehm highlights the different aspects of software quality and the right context. Let’s have a look more deeply into this topic.
When we discuss quality, we should focus on three topics: code structure, implementation correctness, and maintainability. Many managers just care about the first two aspects, but not about maintenance. This is dangerous because enterprises will not invest in individual development just to use the application for only a few years. Depending on the complexity of the application the price for creation could reach hundreds of thousands of dollars. Then it’s understandable that the expected business value of such activities is often highly estimated. A lifetime of 10 years and more in production is very typical. To keep the benefits, adaptions will be mandatory. That implies also a strong focus on maintenance. Clean code doesn’t mean your application can simply change. A very easily understandable article that touches on this topic is written by Dan Abramov. Before we go further on how maintenance could be defined we will discuss the first point: the structure.
Scaffolding Your Project
An often underestimated aspect in development divisions is a missing standard for project structures. A fixed definition of where files have to be placed helps team members find points of interests quickly. Such a meta-structure for Java projects is defined by the build tool Maven. More than a decade ago, companies tested Maven and readily adopted the tool to their established folder structure used in the projects. This resulted in heavy maintenance tasks, given the reason that more and more infrastructure tools for software development were being used. Those tools operate on the standard that Maven defines, meaning that every customization affects the success of integrating new tools or exchanging an existing tool for another.
Another aspect to look at is the company-wide defined META architecture. When possible, every project should follow the same META architecture. This will reduce the time it takes a new developer to join an existing team and catch up with its productivity. This META architecture has to be open for adoptions which can be reached by two simple steps:
Don’t be concerned with too many details;
Follow the KISS (Keep it simple, stupid.) principle.
A classical pattern that violates the KISS principle is when standards heavily got customized. A very good example of the effects of strong customization is described by George Schlossnagle in his book “Advanced PHP Programming.” In chapter 21 he explains the problems created for the team when adopting the original PHP core and not following the recommended way via extensions. This resulted in the effect that every update of the PHP version had to be manually manipulated to include its own development adaptations to the core. In conjunction, structure, architecture, and KISS already define three quality gates, which are easy to implement.
The open-source project TP-CORE, hosted on GitHub, concerns itself with the afore-mentioned structure, architecture, and KISS. There you can find their approach on how to put it in practice. This small Java library rigidly defined the Maven convention with his directory structure. For fast compatibility detection, releases are defined by semantic versioning. The layer structure was chosen as its architecture and is fully described here. Examination of their main architectural decisions concludes as follows:
Each layer is defined by his own package and the files following also a strict rule. No special PRE or POST-fix is used. The functionality Logger, for example, is declared by an interface called Logger and the corresponding implementation LogbackLogger. The API interfaces can detect in the package “business” and the implementation classes located in the package “application.” Naming like ILogger and LoggerImpl should be avoided. Imagine a project that was started 10 years ago and the LoggerImpl was based on Log4J. Now a new requirement arises, and the log level needs to be updated during run time. To solve this challenge, the Log4J library could be replaced with Logback. Now it is understandable why it is a good idea to name the implementation class like the interface, combined with the implementation detail: it makes maintenance much easier! Equal conventions can also be found within the Java standard API. The interface List is implemented by an ArrayList. Obviously, again the interface is not labeled as something like IList and the implementation not as ListImpl .
Summarizing this short paragraph, a full measurement rule set was defined to describe our understanding of structural quality. By experience, this description should be short. If other people can easily comprehend your intentions, they willingly accept your guidance, deferring to your knowledge. In addition, the architect will be much faster in detecting rule violations.
Measure Your Success
The most difficult part is to keep a clean code. Some advice is not bad per se, but in the context of your project, may not prove as useful. In my opinion, the most important rule would be to always activate the compiler warning, no matter which programming language you use! All compiler warnings will have to be resolved when a release is prepared. Companies dealing with critical software, like NASA, strictly apply this rule in their projects resulting in utter success.
Coding conventions about naming, line length, and API documentation, like JavaDoc, can be simply defined and observed by tools like Checkstyle. This process can run fully automated during your build. Be careful; even if the code checkers pass without warnings, this does not mean that everything is working optimally. JavaDoc, for example, is problematic. With an automated Checkstyle, it can be assured that this API documentation exists, although we have no idea about the quality of those descriptions.
There should be no need to discuss the benefits of testing in this case; let us rather take a walkthrough of test coverage. The industry standard of 85% of covered code in test cases should be followed because coverage at less than 85% will not reach the complex parts of your application. 100% coverage just burns down your budget fast without resulting in higher benefits. A prime example of this is the TP-CORE project, whose test coverage is mostly between 92% to 95%. This was done to see real possibilities.
As already explained, the business layer contains just interfaces, defining the API. This layer is explicitly excluded from the coverage checks. Another package is called internal and it contains hidden implementations, like the SAX DocumentHandler. Because of the dependencies the DocumentHandler is bound to, it is very difficult to test this class directly, even with Mocks. This is unproblematic given that the purpose of this class is only for internal usage. In addition, the class is implicitly tested by the implementation using the DocumentHandler. To reach higher coverage, it also could be an option to exclude all internal implementations from checks. But it is always a good idea to observe the implicit coverage of those classes to detect aspects you may be unaware of.
Besides the low-level unit tests, automated acceptance tests should also be run. Paying close attention to these points may avoid a variety of problems. But never trust those fully automated checks blindly! Regularly repeated manual code inspections will always be mandatory, especially when working with external vendors. In our talk at JCON 2019, we demonstrated how simply test coverage could be faked. To detect other vulnerabilities you can additionally run checkers like SpotBugs and others more.
Tests don’t indicate that an application is free of failures, but they indicate a defined behavior for implemented functionality.
For a while now, SCM suites like GitLab or Microsoft Azure support pull requests, introduced long ago in GitHub. Those workflows are nothing new; IBM Synergy used to apply the same technique. A Build Manager was responsible to merge the developers’ changes into the codebase. In a rapid manner, all the revisions performed by the developer are just added into the repository by the Build Manager, who does not hold a sufficiently profound knowledge to decide about the implementation quality. It was the usual practice to simply secure that the build is not broken and always the compile produce an artifact.
Enterprises have discovered this as a new strategy to handle pull requests. Now, managers often make the decision to use pull requests as a quality gate. In my personal experience, this slows down productivity because it takes time until the changes are available in the codebase. Understanding of the branch and merge mechanism helps you to decide for a simpler branch model, like release branch lines. On those branches tools like SonarQube operate to observe the overall quality goal.
If a project needs an orchestrated build, with a defined order how artifacts have to create, you have a strong hint for a refactoring.
The coupling between classes and modules is often underestimated. It is very difficult to have an automated visualization for the bindings of modules. You will find out very fast the effect it has when a light coupling is violated because of an increment of complexity in your build logic.
Repeat Your Success
Rest assured, changes will happen! It is a challenge to keep your application open for adjustments. Several of the previous recommendations have implicit effects on future maintenance. A good source quality simplifies the endeavor of being prepared. But there is no guarantee. In the worst cases the end of the product lifecycle, EOL is reached, when mandatory improvements or changes cannot be realized anymore because of an eroded code base, for example.
As already mentioned, light coupling brings with it numerous benefits with respect to maintenance and reutilization. To reach this goal is not that difficult as it might look. In the first place, try to avoid as much as possible the inclusion of third-party libraries. Just to check if a String is empty or NULL it is unnecessary to depend on an external library. These few lines are fast done by oneself. A second important point to be considered in relation to external libraries: “Only one library to solve a problem.” If your project deals with JSON then decide one one implementation and don’t incorporate various artifacts. These two points heavily impact on security: a third-party artifact we can avoid using will not be able to cause any security leaks.
After the decision is taken for an external implementation, try to cover the usage in your project by applying design patterns like proxy, facade, or wrapper. This allows for a replacement more easily because the code changes are not spread around the whole codebase. You don’t need to change everything at once if you follow the advice on how to name the implementation class and provide an interface. Even though a SCM is designed for collaboration, there are limitations when more than one person is editing the same file. Using a design pattern to hide information allows you an iterative update of your changes.
As we have seen: a nonfunctional requirement is not that difficult to describe. With a short checklist, you can clearly define the important aspects for your project. It is not necessary to check all points for every code commit in the repository, this would with all probability just elevate costs and doesn’t result in higher benefits. Running a full check around a day before the release represents an effective solution to keep quality in an agile context and will help recognizing where optimization is necessary. Points of Interests (POI) to secure quality are the revisions in the code base for a release. This gives you a comparable statistic and helps increasing estimations.
Of course, in this short article, it is almost impossible to cover all aspects regarding quality. We hope our explanation helps you to link theory by examples to best practice. In conclusion, this should be your main takeaway: a high level of automation within your infrastructure, like continuous integration, is extremely helpful, but doesn’t prevent you from manual code reviews and audits.
Follow common standards
KISS – keep it simple, stupid!
Equal directory structure for different projects
Simple META architecture, which can reuse as much as possible in other projects
Defined and follow coding styles
If a release got prepared – no compiler warnings are accepted
Have test coverage up to 85%
Avoid third-party libraries as much as possible
Don’t support more than one technology for a specific problem (e. g., JSON)
After Oracle introduces the new release cycle for Java I was not convinced of this new strategy. Even today I still have a different opinion. One of the point I criticize is the disregard of semantic versioning. Also the argument with this new cycle is more easy to deliver more faster new features, I’m not agree. In my opinion could occur some problems in the future. But wait, let’s start from the beginning, before I share my complete thoughts at once.
The six month release cycle Oracle announced in 2017 for Java ensure some insecurity to the community. The biggest fear was formulated by the popular question: Will be Java in future not anymore for free? Of course the answer is a clear no, but there are some impacts for companies they should be aware of it. If we think on huge Applications in production, are some points addressed to the risk management and the business continuing strategy. If the LTS support for security updates after the 3rd year of a published release have to be paid, force well defined strategies for updates into production. I see myself spending in future more time to migrate my projects to new java versions than implement new functionalities. One solution to avoid a permanent update orgy is move away from the Oracle JVM to OpenJDK.
In professional environment is quite popular that companies define a fixed setup to keep security. When I always are forced to update my components without a proof the new features are secure, it could create problems. Commercial projects running under other circumstances and need often special attention. Because you need a well defined environment where you know everything runs stable. Follow the law never touch a running system.
Absolutely I can understand the intention of Oracle to take this step. I guess it’s a way to get rid of old buggy and insecure installations. To secure the internet a bit more. Of course you can not support decades old deprecated versions. This have a heavy financial impact. but I wish they had chosen an less rough strategy. It’s sadly that the business often operate in this way. I wished it exist a more trustful communication.
By experience of preview releases of Java it always was taken a time until they get stable. In this context I remind myself to some heavy issues I was having with the change to 64 bit versions. The typical motto: latest is greatest, could be dangerous. Specially time based releases are good candidates for problems, even when the team is experienced. The pressure is extremely high to deliver in time.
Another fact which could discuss is the semantic versioning. It is a very powerful process, I always recommend. I ask myself If there really every six months new language features to have the reason increasing the Major number? Even for patches and enhancements? But what happens when in future is no new language enhancement? By the way adding by force often new features could decrease quality. In my opinion Java includes many educative features and not every new feature request increase the language capabilities. A simple example is the well known GOTO statement in other languages. When you learn programming often your mentor told you – it exist something if you see it you should run away. Never use GOTO. In Java inner classes I often compare with GOTO, because I think this should avoid. Until now I didn’t find any case where inner classes not a hint for design problems. The same is the heavy usage of functional statements. I can’t find any benefit to define a for loop as lambda function instead of the classical way.
In my opinion it looks like Oracle try to get some pieces from the cake to increase their business. Well this is not something bad,. But in the view of project management I don’t believe it is a well chosen strategy.
As I considered to write an article about my top 10 books, related to computer science and software engineering, I thought it will be an easy going task. In all the years over the last two decades, tons of great books fallen into my hands. This was the thing who made the job difficult. What should be the rules to put an title on the list? Only one title per author, different thematics, more than a hype and easy to understand, are the criterias for my own selection. Some of these books are really old. I suggest this is a good sign for stability. The ordering is a completely personal preference. So I hope you will enjoy my recommendations.
Peopleware: Productive Projects and Teams, Tom DeMarco, (2013), ISBN: 0-321-93411-3
Head First Design Pattern, Eric & Elisabeth Freeman, (2004) ISBN: 0-596-00712-4
Behind Closed Doors, J. Rothman & E. Derby, (2005) ISBN: 0-9766940-2-6
PHP Sicherheit 3 Auflage (German), C.Kunz · S. Esser · P. Prochaska (2010) ISBN: 978-3-89864-535-5
Mastering Regular Expressions 3rd Edition, Jeffrey E. F. Friedl, (2006) ISBN: 0-596-52812-4
GOD AND GOLEM, Inc. 7. th Edition, Norbert Wiener, (1966) ISBN: 0-262-73011-1
Java Power Tools, John F.Smart, (2008) ISBN: 978-0-596-52793-8
Advanced PHP Programming, George Schlossnagle, (2004) ISBN: 0-672-32561-6
Ich habe das Internet gelöscht! (German, Novell), Philipp Spielbusch, (2017) ISBN: 3-499-63189-X
As you can see is on top of my list, a book about JAVA programming. Well, it was the first title who gave me a giant change in the way of coding. Of course now exist much more brilliant titles who address this topic. My way to thinking in architecture starts like for the most architects with coding skills. But to do a great job you have to increase your knowledge about project management. The best way to start to understand how projects get successful done is read: Peopleware. A big surprise to me was find out that my favorite book about web security is written in German. It addresses solutions for the PHP Programming language, but the authors did a really great job to describe very detailed background information. For this reasons is this book extremely useful for all web developers who take care about security. But its not just technology between all. With God and Golem I remind a very old and critic philosophical text, I like to recommend to read. In the case you like this kind of topics check titles of Josef Weizenbaum, Noam Chomsky or Isaac Asimov. Java Power Tools was the first publication who covers DevOps Ideas. And last but not least a short funny novel about the experience of an IT Consultant with his clients. Lightweight and nice to read for relax. And don’t forget to smile. Feel free to leave a comment.
Even though considerable additional effort has been expended on testing in recent years in order to improve the quality of software projects , the path to continuously repeatable successes cannot be taken for granted. Stringent and targeted management of all available resources was and still is indispensable for reproducible success.
(c) 2016 Marco Schulz, Java aktuell Ausgabe 4, S.14-19 – Original article translated from
It is no secret that many IT projects are still struggling to reach a successful conclusion. One might well think that the many new tools and methods that have emerged in recent years offer effective solutions for dealing with the situation. However, if one takes a look at current projects, this impression changes.
The author has often been able to observe how this problem was supposed to be mastered by introducing new tools. Not infrequently, the efforts ended in resignation. The supposed miracle solution quickly turned out to be a heavyweight time robber with an enormous amount of self-management. The initial euphoria of all those involved quickly turned into rejection and not infrequently culminated in a boycott of its use. It is therefore not surprising that experienced employees are skeptical of all change efforts for a long time and only deal with them when they are foreseeably successful. Because of this fact, the author has chosen as the title for this article the provocative quote from Grady Booch, a co-founder of UML.
Companies often spend too little time establishing a balanced internal infrastructure. Even the maintenance of existing fragments is often postponed for various reasons. At the management level, companies prefer to focus on current trends in order to attract customers who expect a list of buzzwords in response to their RFP. Yet Tom De Marco already described it in detail in the 1970s : People make projects (see Figure 1).
We do what we can, but can we do anything?
The project, despite best intentions and intensive efforts find a happy end, is unfortunately not the rule. But when can one speak of a failed project in software development? An abandonment of all activities due to a lack of prospects of success is of course an obvious reason, but in this context it is rather rare. Rather, one gains this insight during the post-project review of completed orders. In controlling, for example, weak points come to light when determining profitability.
The reasons for negative results are usually exceeding the estimated budget or the agreed completion date. Usually, both conditions apply at the same time, as the endangered delivery deadline is countered by increasing personnel. This practice quickly reaches its limits, as new team members require an induction period, visibly reducing the productivity of the existing team. Easy-to-use architectures and a high degree of automation mitigate this effect somewhat. Every now and then, people also move to replace the contractor in the hope that new brooms sweep better.
A quick look at the top 3 list of major projects that have failed in Germany shows how a lack of communication, inadequate planning and poor management have a negative impact on the external perception of projects: Berlin Airport, Hamburg’s Elbe Philharmonic Hall and Stuttgart 21. Thanks to extensive media coverage, these undertakings are sufficiently well known and need no further explanation. Even if the examples cited do not originate from information technology, the recurring reasons for failure due to cost explosion and time delay can be found here as well.
The will to create something big and important is not enough on its own. Those responsible also need the necessary technical, planning, social and communication skills, coupled with the authority to act. Building castles in the air and waiting for dreams to come true does not produce presentable results.
Great success is usually achieved when as few people as possible have veto power over decisions. This does not mean that advice should be ignored, but every possible state of mind cannot be taken into account. This makes it all the more important for the person responsible for the project to have the authority to enforce his or her decision, but not to demonstrate this with all vigor.
It is perfectly normal for a decision-maker not to be in control of all the details. After all, you delegate implementation to the appropriate specialists. Here’s a brief example: When the possibilities for creating larger and more complex Web applications became better and better in the early 2000s, the question often came up in meetings as to which paradigm should be used to implement the display logic. The terms “multi-tier”, “thin client” and “fat client” dominated the discussions of the decision-making bodies at that time. Explaining the advantages of different layers of a distributed web application to the client was one thing. But to leave it up to a technically savvy layman to decide how to access his new application – via browser (“thin client”) or via a separate GUI (“fat client”) – is simply foolish. Thus, in many cases, it was necessary to clear up misunderstandings that arose during development. The narrow browser solution not infrequently turned out to be a difficult technology to master, because manufacturers rarely cared about standards. Instead, one of the main requirements was usually to make the application look almost identical in the most popular browsers. However, this could only be achieved with considerable additional effort. Similar observations were made during the first hype of service-oriented architectures.
The consequence of these observations shows that it is indispensable to develop a vision before the start of the project, the goals of which also correspond to the estimated budget. A reusable deluxe version with as many degrees of freedom as possible requires a different approach than a “we get what we need” solution. It’s less about getting lost in the details and more about keeping the big picture in mind.
Particularly in German-speaking countries, companies find it difficult to find the necessary players for successful project implementation. The reasons for this may be quite diverse and could be due, among other things, to the fact that companies have not yet understood that experts rarely want to talk to poorly informed and inadequately prepared recruitment service providers.
Getting things done!
Successful project management is not an arbitrary coincidence. For a long time, an insufficient flow of information due to a lack of communication has been identified as one of the negative causes. Many projects have their own inherent character, which is also shaped by the team that accepts the challenge in order to jointly master the task set. Agile methods such as Scrum , Prince2  or Kanban  pick up on this insight and offer potential solutions to be able to carry out IT projects successfully.
Occasionally, however, it can be observed how project managers transfer planning tasks to the responsible developers for self-management under the pretext of the newly introduced agile methods. The author has frequently experienced how architects have tended to see themselves in day-to-day implementation work instead of checking the delivered fragments for compliance with standards. In this way, quality cannot be established in the long term, since the results are merely solutions that ensure functionality and, because of time and cost pressures, do not establish the necessary structures to ensure future maintainability. Agile is not a synonym for anarchy. This setup likes to be decorated with an overloaded toolbox full of tools from the DevOps department and already the project is seemingly unsinkable. Just like the Titanic!
It is not without reason that for years it has been recommended to introduce a maximum of three new technologies at the start of a project. In this context, it is also not advisable to always go for the latest trends right away. When deciding on a technology, the appropriate resources must first be built up in the company, for which sufficient time must be planned. The investments are only beneficial if the choice made is more than just a short-lived hype. A good indicator of consistency is extensive documentation and an active community. These open secrets have been discussed in the relevant literature for years.
However, how does one proceed when a project has been established for many years, but in terms of the product life cycle a swing to new techniques becomes unavoidable? The reasons for such an effort may be many and vary from company to company. The need not to miss important innovations in order to remain competitive should not be delayed for too long. This consideration results in a strategy that is quite simple to implement. Current versions are continued in the proven tradition, and only for the next major release or the one after that is a roadmap drawn up that contains all the necessary points for a successful changeover. For this purpose, the critical points are worked out and tested in small feasibility studies, which are somewhat more demanding than a “hello world” tutorial, to see how an implementation could succeed. From experience, it is the small details that can be the crumbs on the scale to determine success or failure.
In all efforts, the goal is to achieve a high degree of automation. Compared to constantly recurring tasks that have to be performed manually, automation offers the possibility of producing continuously repeatable results. However, it is in the nature of things that simple activities are easier to automate than complex processes. In this case, it is important to check the cost-effectiveness of the plans beforehand so that developers do not indulge completely in their natural urge to play and also work through unpleasant day-to-day activities.
He who writes stays
Documentation, the vexed topic, spans all phases of the software development process. Whether for API descriptions, the user manual, planning documents for the architecture or learned knowledge about optimal procedures – describing is not one of the favored tasks of all protagonists involved. It can often be observed that the common opinion seems to prevail that thick manuals stand for extensive functionality of the product. However, long texts in a documentation are more of a quality defect that tries the reader’s patience because he expects precise instructions that get to the point. Instead, they receive vague phrases with trivial examples that rarely solve problems.
This insight can also be applied to project documentation and has been detailed by Johannes Sidersleben , among others, under the metaphor about Victorian novellas. Universities have already taken up these findings. For example, Merseburg University of Applied Sciences has established the course of study “Technical Writing” . It is hoped to find more graduates of this course in the project landscape in the future.
When selecting collaborative tools as knowledge repositories, it is always important to keep the big picture in mind. Successful knowledge management can be measured by how efficiently an employee finds the information they are looking for. For this reason, company-wide use is a management decision and mandatory for all departments.
Information has a different nature and varies both in its scope and in how long it remains current. This results in different forms of presentation such as wiki, blog, ticket system, tweets, forums or podcasts, to list just a few. Forums very optimally depict the question and answer problem. A wiki is ideal for continuous text, such as that found in documentation and descriptions. Many webcasts are offered as video, without the visual representation adding any value. In most cases, a well-understood and properly produced audio track is sufficient to distribute knowledge. With a common and standardized database, completed projects can be compared efficiently. The resulting knowledge offers a high added value when making forecasts for future projects.
Test & Metrics – the measure of all things
Just by skimming the Quality Report 2014, one quickly learns that the new trend is “software testing”. Companies are increasingly allocating contingents for this, which take up a volume similar to the expenditure for the implementation of the project. Strictly speaking, one extinguishes fire with gasoline at this point. On closer inspection, the budget is already doubled at the planning stage. It is often up to the skill of the project manager to find a suitable declaration for earmarked project funds.
Only your consequent check of the test case coverage by suitable analysis tools ensures that in the end sufficient testing has been done. Even if one may hardly believe it: In an age in which software tests can be created more easily than ever before and different paradigms can be combined, extensive and meaningful test coverage is rather the exception (see Figure 2).
It is well known that it is not possible to prove that software is free of errors. Tests are only used to prove a defined behavior for the scenarios created. Automated test cases are in no way a substitute for manual code review by experienced architects. A simple example of this are nested “try catch” blocks that occur from time to time in Java, which have a direct effect on the program flow. Sometimes nesting can be intentional and useful. In this case, however, the error handling is not limited to the output of the stack trace in a log file. The cause of this programming error lies in the inexperience of the developer and the bad advice of the IDE at this point, for an expected error handling to enclose the instruction with an own “try catch” block instead of supplementing the existing routine by an additional “catch” statement. To want to detect this obvious error by test cases is an infantile approach from an economic point of view.
Typical error patterns can be detected inexpensively and efficiently by static test procedures. Publications that are particularly concerned with code quality and efficiency in the Java programming language [8, 9, 10] are always a good starting point for developing your own standards.
The consideration of error types is also very informative. Issue tracking and commit messages in SCM systems of open source projects such as Liferay  or GeoServer  show that a larger part of the errors concern the graphical user interface (GUI). These are often corrections of display texts in buttons and the like. The reporting of primarily display errors can also lie in the perception of the users. For them, the behavior of an application is usually a black box, so they deal with the software accordingly. It is not at all wrong to assume that the application has few errors when the number of users is high.
The usual computer science figures are software metrics that can give management a sense of the physical size of a project. Used correctly, such an overview provides helpful arguments for management decisions. For example, McCabe’s  cyclic complexity can be used to derive the number of test cases needed. Also statistics about the Lines of Code and the usual counts of packages, classes and methods show the growth of a project and can provide valuable information.
A very informative processing of this information is the project Code-City , which visualizes such a distribution as a city map. It is impressive Figure 3: Maven JDepend Plugin – Numbers with little significance to recognize where dangerous monoliths can arise and where orphaned classes or packages occur.
In day-to-day business, one is content to spread hectic bustle and put on a stressed face. By producing countless meters of paper, personal productivity is subsequently proven. The energy consumed in this way could be used much more sensibly through a consistently considered approach.
Loosely based on Kant’s “Sapere Aude”, simple solutions should be encouraged and demanded. Employees who need complicated structures to emphasize their own genius in the team may not be supporting pillars on which joint successes can be built. Cooperation with unteachable contemporaries is quickly reconsidered and, if necessary, corrected.
Many roads lead to Rome – and Rome was not built in a day. However, it cannot be denied that at some point the time has come to break ground. The choice of paths is not an undecidable problem either. There are safe paths and dangerous trails on which even experienced hikers have their fair share of trouble reaching their destination safely.
For successful project management, it is essential to lead the pack on solid and stable ground. This does not fundamentally rule out unconventional solutions, provided they are appropriate. The statement in decision-making bodies: “What you are saying is all correct, but there are processes in our company to which your presentation cannot be applied” is best rebutted with the argument: “That is quite correct, so it is now our task to work out ways of adapting the company processes in line with known success stories, instead of spending our time listing reasons for keeping everything the same. I’m sure you’ll agree that the purpose of our meeting is to solve problems, not ignore them.” … more voice